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Table 2 Summary of the impacts of multiple pregnancy [3, 4, 18, 19, 2126]

From: Promoting the use of elective single embryo transfer in clinical practice

Maternal health Infant health Psychosocial effects on the family
• Pre-eclampsia
• Gestational diabetes
• Placental previa
• Placental abruption
• Preterm premature rupture of the membranes
• Cesarean delivery
• Postpartum hemorrhage
• Death
• Placental problems
− Premature aging
− Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome
• Spontaneous abortion
• Intrauterine growth restriction
• Preterm (<37 weeks), very preterm (<32 weeks), and extreme preterm (<28 weeks) birth
• Perinatal and infant mortality
• Low (<2500 g) and very low birth weight (<1500 g)
• Intraventricular hemorrhage
• Periventricular leukomalacia
• Respiratory distress syndrome
• Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
• Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
• Necrotizing enterocolitis
• Sepsis
• Jaundice
• Retinopathy of prematurity
• Cerebral palsy
• Neural tube defects, heart malformations, and other birth defects
• Developmental delays
• Postpartum depression (mother and father)
• Relationship stress
• Financial stress
− Obstetric costs and neonatal intensive care admission
− Costs for caring for multiple children throughout childhood