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Table 2 Distribution of mean children ever born by background characteristics according to the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria

From: Ethnic disparities in fertility and its determinants in Nigeria

Background Characteristics Hausa/Fulani Igbo Yoruba
\( \overline{x}\left(\sigma \right) \) F-value (p-value) \( \overline{x}\left(\sigma \right) \) F-value (p-value) \( \overline{x}\left(\sigma \right) \) F-value (p-value)
Total 3.92(3.4)   2.35(2.8)   2.28(2.1)  
Age   6559.79***   1071.71***   2271.35***
 15–24 0.98(1.2) (< 0.001) 0.33(0.8) (< 0.001) 0.30(0.7) (< 0.001)
 25–34 4.28(2.0)   2.18(2.1)   2.36(1.6)  
 35–44 6.92(2.7)   4.37(2.7)   4.11(1.7)  
 45–49 8.21(3.2)   6.08(2.9)   4.80(1.9)  
Residence   88.49***   9.95**   49.50***
 Urban 3.45(3.4) (< 0.001) 2.28(2.7) (0.002) 2.17(2.1) (< 0.001)
 Rural 4.09(3.3)   2.55(2.8)   2.69(2.4)  
Education   362.99***   648.26***   333.86***
 No education 4.39(3.4) (< 0.001) 6.13(2.8) (< 0.001) 4.10(2.2) (< 0.001)
 Primary 3.65(3.3)   4.51(3.1)   3.82(2.0)  
 Secondary 1.55(2.4)   1.60(2.2)   1.93(2.1)  
 Higher 2.31(2.6)   1.56(2.0)   1.48(1.6)  
Religion   8.67***   46.18***   10.56***
 Christian 2.50(2.7) (< 0.001) 2.31(2.8) (< 0.001) 2.18(2.2) (< 0.001)
 Islam 3.93(3.4)   2.68(2.3)   2.43(2.1)  
 Others 4.45(5.3)   5.85(2.9)   1.59(2.0)  
Wealth Index   99.54***   121.02***   28.76***
 Poor 4.21(3.6) (< 0.001) 3.54(3.4) (< 0.001) 2.99(2.6) (< 0.001)
 Middle 3.52(3.3)   2.76(3.2)   2.78(2.5)  
 Rich 3.18(3.2)   1.98(2.4)   2.19(2.1)  
Sex preference   55.89***   15.35***   7.15**
 No 4.06(3.4) (< 0.001) 2.48(2.8) (< 0.001) 2.34(2.2) (0.008)
 Yes 3.56(3.2)   2.19(2.7)   2.17(2.2)  
Age at first birth
 No birth a 361.04*** a 340.35*** a 323.89***
 < 18 5.35(3.1) (< 0.001) 5.42(2.8) (< 0.001) 4.26(1.9) (< 0.001)
 18+ 4.39(2.8)   3.66(2.3)   3.25(1.7)  
Ever used any contraceptive   32.24***   69.48***   505.73***
 No 3.89(3.4) (< 0.001) 2.12(2.8) (< 0.001) 1.62(2.1) (< 0.001)
 Yes 4.82(2.8)   2.75(2.7)   2.93(2.1)  
Fertility Preference   346.48***   479.37***   1056.40***
 < 5 1.97(2.9) (< 0.001) 1.36(1.8) (< 0.001) 1.65(1.8) (< 0.001)
 5+ 4.08(3.3)   2.96(3.1)   3.56(2.3)  
Marital Status   246.29***   427.18***   4743.85***
 Never married 0.01(0.1) (< 0.001) 0.09(0.4) (< 0.001) 0.05(0.3) (< 0.001)
 Ever married 4.40(3.3)   3.81(2.7)   3.30(1.9)  
  1. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; a:not applicable